Electric Cars: The Basics
For those of you new to zero-emission electric driving, we recommend a read of the following articles:
- The History Of Electric Cars and Vehicles
- Different Types Of Electric Cars: A Short Guide
- Electric Cars and Vehicles: Pros, Cons And Myths
- What Is Regenerative Braking In Electric Cars
For those keen on an overview of the Indian electric vehicle (EV) market and the benefits of zero-emission electric driving, simply scroll down to the end of the article!
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The Tesla Model 3 Electric Car
Tesla Inc. (formerly Tesla Motors Inc.) is a US based electric vehicle (EV) manufacturer with the following portfolio of electric vehicles:
- All-electric Tesla Model X
- All-electric Tesla Model S
- All-electric Tesla Model Y
- All-electric Tesla Model 3
- All-electric Tesla Roadster
- All-electric Tesla Cybertruck
The all-electric Tesla Model 3 is a best-selling electric vehicle globally. Since its unveiling in 2016, the Tesla Model 3 has been making history. Within a week of opening the booking for the ‘affordable’ Tesla, orders had topped 325,000 units. As of December 2020, more than 800,000 pure electric Model 3 cars have been delivered.
Deliveries to US customers commenced in July 2017. In February 2019, the Model 3 become the best selling plug-in electric car in the US. For the UK market, the Model 3 bookings opened in May 2019, with deliveries commencing in June 2019.
Driving an electric vehicle (EV) is cheaper than driving a petrol or diesel vehicle. As an example, in India, filling a full tank of fuel for the internal combustion engine (ICE) Tata Nexon SUV will cost up to Rs 5,000 (assuming an average cost per litre of Rs 100. The Tata Nexon has a fuel tank capacity of 44 L).
In comparison, the Tata Nexon Pure Electric SUV will cost less than Rs 300 for a full EV battery charge (EV Battery size: 30.2 kWh). In India, the average cost for residential electricity is between Rs 5 to Rs 10 per kWh(unit). Therefore the cost to drive per km (or mile) in a pure electric vehicle is substantially lower than a petrol or diesel vehicle.
At an average one can expect a cost per km of Rs 1 for a zero-emission EV, while for an equivalent petrol or diesel vehicle, the cost per km could be up to Rs 7 per km. The annual cost savings achieved by switching to electric driving is significant!
|At A Glance|
|EV Type:||Battery-Electric Vehicle (BEV)|
|Available In India:||No|
|Trims (3 Options)|
|Standard Range Plus|
|A best-selling electric car||Expensive. Cheaper pure electric alternatives available|
|Fast electric performance||Build quality can be improved|
|Good EV battery range and Supercharger network||Low rankings in 2020 What Car? Reliability Survey|
|EV Battery & Emissions|
|EV Battery Type:||Lithium-ion|
|EV Battery Capacity:||Available in three battery sizes (53 kWh, 78 kWh, 82 kWh)|
|Charging:||Up to 250 kW rapid charging standard. On-board charger 11 kW AC (3-Phase)|
|Charge Port:||Type 2|
|EV Cable Type:||Type 2|
|Tailpipe Emissions:||0g (CO2/km)|
|Warranty:||8 years or 100,000 miles|
|Charging Times (Overview)|
|Slow charging AC (3 kW – 3.6 kW):||6 – 12 hours (dependent on size of EV battery & SOC)|
|Fast charging AC (7 kW – 22 kW):||3 – 8 hours (dependent on size of EV battery & SoC)|
|Rapid charging AC (43 kW):||0-80%: 20 mins to 60 mins (dependent on size of EV battery & SoC)|
|Rapid charging DC (50 kW+):||0-80%: 20 mins to 60 mins (dependent on size of EV battery & SoC)|
|Ultra rapid charging DC (150 kW+):||0-80% : 20 mins to 40 mins (dependent on size of EV battery & SoC)|
|Tesla Supercharger (120 kW – 250 kW):||0-80%: up to 25 mins (dependent on size of EV battery & SoC)|
- Note 1: SoC: state of charge
|Tesla Model 3 Standard Range Plus|
|EV Battery Capacity:||53 kWh|
|Pure Electric Range (WLTP):||278 miles|
|Electric Energy Consumption (Wh/km):||154|
|Charging:||170 kW Rapid Charging (on-board charger: 11 kW AC)|
|Top Speed:||140 mph|
|0-60 mph:||5.3 seconds|
|Drive:||Rear-wheel drive (RWD)|
|Electric Motor (kW):||239|
|Max Power (PS):||325|
|Tesla Model 3 Long Range|
|EV Battery Capacity:||78 kWh|
|Pure Electric Range (WLTP):||360 miles|
|Electric Energy Consumption (Wh/km):||152|
|Charging:||190 kW Rapid Charging (on-board charger: 11 kW AC)|
|Top Speed:||145 mph|
|0-60 mph:||4.2 seconds|
|Drive:||All-wheel drive (AWD)|
|Electric Motor (kW):||324|
|Max Power (PS):||441|
|Tesla Model 3 Performance|
|EV Battery Capacity:||82 kWh|
|Pure Electric Range (WLTP):||352 miles|
|Electric Energy Consumption (Wh/km):||165|
|Charging:||250 kW Rapid Charging (on-board charger: 11 kW AC)|
|Top Speed:||162 mph|
|0-60 mph:||3.1 seconds|
|Drive:||All-wheel drive (AWD)|
|Electric Motor (kW):||377|
|Max Power (PS):||513|
India Electric Vehicle (EV) Market
India, like many other countries, is well positioned to benefit from the shift to zero-tailpipe emission electric driving. Road transportation is a major contributor to air pollution (over 30%), choking our towns, cities and villages across India. Diesel vehicles, in particular, diesel trucks and diesel buses, are significant sources for tailpipe emissions. But given the rise in the standard of living, since liberalisation, the demand for privately owned passenger cars has increased at an unprecedented pace, further worsening the air quality. India has more than 3 crores (30 million) cars releasing tailpipe emissions on its roads!
Though we have seen some improvements in air quality during the ongoing pandemic (as a result of lower vehicle traffic), India’s shift to electric driving will be key in achieving long-term higher air quality. Of course, apart from EVs, the continued development of green and renewable energy infrastructure will be key in achieving lower long-term air pollution. India has already demonstrated global leadership in regards to large-scale solar and wind projects! Hopefully, India will replicate the success with zero-emission electric vehicles.
Despite recent announcements and support from local and national government agencies in India, the EV market is still at a nascent stage, well, at least in terms of electric cars and electric vans. Two-wheel electric scooters and three-wheel electric rickshaws (e-rickshaws) have demonstrated a strong uptake, and India is poised to become a global leader in electric scooters and electric rickshaws (e-tuk). In fact, the ubiquitous e-rickshaw commands an impressive 83% of the Indian electric vehicle market. India currently has over 15 lakhs (1.5 million) e-rickshaws, with each EV playing a role in reducing tailpipe emissions on our roads in India.
Sales of passenger electric cars is still at an early stage. In FY2021, though the market witnessed a growth of nearly 110% from the previous year, the absolute volume of cars sold was only 5,905 electric cars. Currently there are less that 15 pure electric car models available on sale in India.
Tata Motors, the biggest automotive manufacturer in India has launched the Tata Nexon electric SUV. Mahindra Electric, another leading Indian automotive manufacturer, has also launched a number of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs), to include, the Mahindra eVerito electric car, Mahindra eSupro electric van and Mahindra e2o Plus compact electric car. International manufacturers, like UK based MG Motors, have also launched the MG ZS electric SUV in India. Also available are the all-electric Jaguar I-PACE SUV and the Hyundai Kona electric SUV.
Benefits Of Electric Driving
The benefits of electric driving are many, with significant advantageous over petrol and diesel internal combustion (ICE) engine cars, for all stakeholders. These benefits include:
- Lower to zero-tailpipe emissions
- Lower running costs
- Lower taxes
- Lower maintenance costs
- Lower noise pollution
- Convenience of charging at home
- Smoother drive
- Instant torque for acceleration
- Lower environmental impact
Below we have highlighted three of our favourite benefits of owning and driving an electric car.
Improved Air Quality
Battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) or all-electric vehicles do not have tailpipe pollution. In fact, such electric cars do not even have a tailpipe! Zero-emission electric driving has a real and immediate impact on local air quality i.e. improving air quality. While, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have reduced tailpipe pollution compared to traditional petrol and diesel vehicles. The sooner we migrate to electric driving in India, the sooner we can improve air quality for all our cities, towns and villages. Lower air pollution will also result in a reduced number of health issues arising from inhaling toxic pollutants.
Lower Maintenance & Running Costs
Electric vehicles (EVs) are cheaper to maintain and drive. Pure electric cars have far fewer moving parts compared to internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. The fewer the moving parts, the lower the probability of repair and maintenance. Moreover charging an electric car can cost as little Rs 50 per 100 kilometres! A full charge can cost between Rs 100 and Rs 200. Significantly cheaper than filling a tank of petrol or diesel!
Lower Noise Pollution
Yes, we in India are far more resilient to noise pollution than those living in the western world. We have certainly got used to horns blaring and engines roaring, day and night. But that does not mean we enjoy or welcome noise pollution. In fact, quite the opposite!
Though much focus has been on the advantageous of ‘air quality’ with an electric car, just as important, is the benefit of lower noise pollution. In fact, pure electric cars are silent, with an inbuilt ‘sound booster’ to increase road safety for pedestrians. As our cities in India and across the world become densely populated with cars, the significant negative impact on ‘quality of life’ as a result of increased noise pollution from petrol and diesel vehicles, is just as dangerous, as increased air pollution. Battery-electric cars are a perfect solution in reducing noise pollution and increasing the living standards for us all. Of course, one can only hope that the self inflicted ‘horn blaring’ pollution will also reduce!